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特朗普又搞事,美国白宫贸易声明说了啥?

来源: 作者:admin 2018-05-30 11:09:51

“贸易战”轰轰烈烈演绎至今,上周末,我国披露的中美联合声明,以及美国国务卿姆努钦的一句“on hold”(暂停),似乎令市场稍有喘息。

  然而,白宫于美国时间5月29日正式发布“关于采取措施保护国内科技和知识产权免受中国歧视性和制约性贸易的声明”,宣布将加强对我国对美科技领域投资限制,就知识产权保护诉诸WTO,以及,对我国对美出口的价值500亿美元的货物征收25%的关税,中美贸易战紧张局势再度掀起。——

  这是继4月4日1500亿美元征税清单、中兴销售禁令之后,第三轮施压。

 

  美国的上述措施,与3个月前发表的301条款Fact Sheet中的措施(详见文末链接),如出一辙。

特朗普又搞事,美国白宫贸易声明说了啥?
全文翻译美国贸易声明

  第一部分:抱怨

  “From now on, we expect tradingrelationships to be fair and to be reciprocal.”

  President Donald J. Trump

  “从现在起,我们期望可以建立公平对等的贸易关系。”

  总统唐纳德·J·川普

  YEARS OF UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES:Chinahas consistently taken advantage of the American economy with practices that undermine fair and reciprocal trade.

  多年的不公贸易惯例 : 中国一直以来都在通过破坏公平和对等的贸易惯例占美国经济的便宜。

  Formany years, China has pursued industrial policies and unfair tradepractices—including dumping, discriminatory non-tariff barriers, forcedtechnology transfer, over capacity, and industrial subsidies—that championChinese firms and make it impossible for many United States firms to compete ona level playing field.

  多年以来,中国一直在推行产业政策和不公的贸易惯例——这其中包括倾销、歧视性非关税壁垒、强制性的技术转让,产能过剩和一系列产业补贴。这些优待中国公司(的政策和管理)使得很多美国企业无法在一个公平的环境中竞争。

  China’sindustrial policies, such as its “Made in China 2025” plan, harm companies inthe United States and around the world.

  中国的产业政策,例如“中国制造2025”,伤害了包括美国和世界其他国家的许多公司。

  China imposes much highertariffs on United States exports than the United States imposes on China.

  相较于美国在中国商品上征税政策,中国在美国出口的商品上征收了更为高昂的关税。

  China’s average tariff rate is nearly three timeshigher than the average United States rate.

  中国的平均(关)税率几乎是美国平均关税率的三倍。

  Certain products are even more imbalanced, forinstance the United States charges a 2.5 percent tariff on Chinese cars, whileChina currently maintains a 25 percent tariff on cars from the UnitedStates.

  某些产品甚至更不平衡。例如美国在中国汽车上征收的关税是2.5%,然而中国目前在美国出口的汽车上征收的是25%的关税。

  China has banned imports of United States agricultural products such as poultry, cutting offAmerica’s ranchers and farmers from a major market for their goods.

  中国禁止从美国进口例如家禽一类的农产品(000061,股吧),(这一行为)切断了美国农产主和农业工作者在一个主要市场上交易他们产品的(权力)。

  China has dumpedand unfairly subsidized a range of goods for the United States market,undermining America’s domestic industry.

  中国在向美国市场倾销并且不公平地补贴了一系列商品,这一行为损害了美国的国内产业。

  In 2018 alone, the TrumpAdministration has found dumping or unfair subsidies on 13 different products,including steel wheels, cold-drawn mechanical tubing, tool chests and cabinets,forged steel fittings, aluminum foil, rubber bands, cast iron soil pipe andfittings, and large diameter welded pipe.

  仅在2018年这一年,川普政府就已发现在13种不同商品上的倾销或不公补贴行为。这其中包括钢轮、冷拔机械管材、工具箱、机柜、锻钢配件、铝箔、橡胶带、铸铁管、管件、大口径焊管。

  In January 2018, the TrumpAdministration found that China’s overproduction of steel and aluminum, and theresulting impact on global markets, is a circumstance that threatens to impairAmerica’s national security.

  在2018年一月,川普政府发现中国在钢铁和铝上存在过度生产的现象,这一情况将对全球市场产生影响,这种情况也将威胁损害美国国家安全。

  TheUnited States has run a trade in goods deficit with China for years, includinga $375 billion deficit in 2017 alone.

  多年以来,美国对华一直呈现贸易逆差,仅在2017年一年逆差数字就达到了3750亿美元。

  第二部分:谈知识产权

  UNDERMINING AMERICANINNOVATION AND JOBS: China has aggressively sought to obtain technology fromAmerican companies and undermine American innovation and creativity.

  削弱美国的创新和工作:中国激进地寻求从美国公司获取技术,并破坏美国的创新和创造力。

  The cost of China’sintellectual property theft costs United States innovators billions of dollarsa year, and China accounts for 87 percent of counterfeit goods seized cominginto the United States.

  中国的知识产权盗取行为对美国创新者造成的损害每年高达数十亿美元。并且同时,中国占到了进入美国的伪造商品来源的87%。

  United States Trade Representative’s (USTR)Section 301 investigation identified four of China’s aggressive technologypolicies that put 44 million American technology jobs at risk:

  美国贸易代表(USTR)在“301调查”中确定了四项中国激进的技术政策,这些政策将使4400万美国技术工作面临风险:

  Forced technologytransfer;

  强制性技术转让;

  Requiring licensing atless than economic value;

  要求专利低于经济价值;

  Chinese state-directedacquisition of sensitive United States technology for strategic purposes; and

  以中国政府为导向的并具有战略目的而对敏感的美国科技进行收购;和

  Outright cyber theft.

  公然地网络盗窃

  China uses foreign ownership restrictions,administrative review, and licensing processes to force or pressure technologytransfers from American companies.

  中国使用国外所有权限制,行政审查和许可程序来强制或给来自美国公司的技术转让施压。

  China requires foreigncompanies that access their New Energy Vehicles market to transfer coretechnologies and disclose development and manufacturing technology.

  中国要求进入新能源汽车市场的外国公司转让核心技术兵披露开发和制造技术。

  China imposes contractualrestrictions on the licensing of intellectual property and technology byforeign firms into China, but does not put the same restrictions on contractsbetween two Chinese enterprises.

  中国对外国公司在中国的知识产权和技术许可实行合同限制,但同样的限制并未出现在两家中国企业之间签署的合同中。

  China directs and facilitates investments in and acquisitions of United States companies togenerate large-scale technology transfer.

  中国引导并促进对美国公司的投资和收购,旨在于产生大规模的技术转让。

  China conducts andsupports cyber intrusions into United States computer networks to gain accessto valuable business information so Chinese companies can copy products.

  中国引导并支持网络入侵美国计算机网络,从而获取有价值的商业信息,以便中国公司抄袭产品。

  第三部分:回顾

  STANDING UP TO CHINA’S UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: President Trump has taken long overdue action to finally address the source of the problem, China’s unfair trade practices that hurt America’s workers and our innovative industries.

  抵制中国的不公平贸易:总统特朗普已采取拖延已久的行动来解决问题的根源,中国的不公平贸易手段伤害到了美国工人和创新产业(的发展)。

  In January 2018, the President announced his decision to provide safeguard relief to United States manufacturers injured by surging imports of washing machines and solar products.

  2018年1月,特朗普宣布对因受洗衣机和太阳能产品进口激增伤害的美国制造业提供保障措施的决定。

  This was the first use of Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 to impose tariffs in 16 years.

  这是16年来第一次使用《1974年贸易法》中的201条款来对进口商品征收关税。

  These actions responded to injurious trade practices by China and other countries, including attempts to avoid legally imposed antidumping and countervailing duties.

  这些措施针对中国和其他国家的不公平贸易,包括试图避免合法的进口反倾销和反补贴。

  Following the decision, Whirlpool announced 200 new jobs in Ohio.

  遵照这些决定,Whirlpool宣布在俄亥俄州新增200个就业。

  USTR and the Department of Commerce are working together to defend the right of the United States to continue treating China as a non-market economy in antidumping investigations until China makes the reforms it agreed to when it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  美国贸易代表办公室和商务部一起反对美国在反倾销调查中继续将中国视为“非市场经济(国家)”,直到中国履行其加入世界贸易组织时的改革承诺。

  President Trump’s Administration has successfully litigated WTO disputes targeting unfair trade practices and upholding our right to enforce United States trade laws.

  特朗普的当政管理已经针对不公平贸易和维护美国权利成功进行WTO争端上诉,以执行美国法律

  In February 2018, USTR won a WTO compliance challenge against China’s unfair antidumping and countervailing duties on United States poultry exports and China announced the termination of those duties.

  2018年2月,美国贸易代表办公室旧反对中国在家禽出口上的不公正反倾销和反补贴税赢得了WTO,中国宣布停止这些关税。

  第四部分:将采取的措施

  PROTECTING AMERICAN INNOVATION ANDCREATIVITY:President Trump has worked to defend America’s intellectualproperty and proprietary technology from theft and other threats.

  保护美国创新和创造:特朗普总统已努力“保卫”美国的知识产权和专有技术落入“窃取”行为和其他威胁手中。

  In August 2017, the Administration initiated a Section301 investigation into China’s practices related to forced technology transfer,unfair licensing, and intellectual property policies.

  2017年8月,美国政府发起了301调查,针对的是中国强制进行技术转移的行为、不公平的准入制度和知识产权政策。

  After USTR completed its Section 301 report in March2018, the President directed the agencies to explore numerous actions toprotect domestic technology and intellectual property.

  在USTR(美国贸易代表办公室)于2018年3月完成301报告后,总统要求相关部门采取多种措施,来保护本国技术和知识产权。

  Under President Trump’s leadership:

  在特朗普总统的领导下:

  The United States will impose a 25 percent tariff on $50billion of goods imported from China containing industrially significanttechnology, including those related to the “Made in China 2025” program. The final list of covered imports will be announced by June 15, 2018.

  美国将对进口自中国的500亿美元的货物征收25%的关税,这些货物含有工业重大技术,具体包括那些与“中国制造2025”计划相关的技术。最终征收的清单将于2018年6月15日公布。

  USTR willcontinue WTO dispute settlement against China originally initiated in March toaddress China’s discriminatory technology licensing requirements.

  USTR(美国贸易代表办公室)将继续用WTO争端解决机制来“应对”中国,这项行动原本在3月就已开始,为的是解决中国“歧视性”的技术准入要求。

  The United States will implement specific investmentrestrictions and enhanced export controls for Chinese persons and entitiesrelated to the acquisition of industrially significant technology. Thelist of restrictions and controls will be announced by June 30, 2018.

  针对涉及到工业重大技术的中国实体和个人,美国将实施特别的投资限制和强化的出口控制。限制和控制清单将于2018年6月30日公布。

  针对白宫的声明,中国商务部迅速作出回应,以下是新华社全文:

  来源:新华视点微博

  记者:于佳欣

  针对美国白宫29日发布的声明,商务部新闻发言人迅速回应表示,我们对白宫发布的策略性声明既感到出乎意料,但也在意料之中,这显然有悖于不久前中美双方在华盛顿达成的共识。

  无论美方出台什么举措,中方都有信心、有能力、有经验捍卫中国人民利益和国家核心利益。

  中方敦促美方按照联合声明精神相向而行。

 
责任编辑:admin


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